Nothing in the world is central, just outside the world. 
Simone Weil

The question is to what extent we can speak of God and still say that we have perceived him to be trustworthy.

The language of this perception is the Aufheben of theology and philosophy. In the history of philosophy, philosophy has coexisted with God. There was a time when it coexisted with the Greek God and then with the Christian God. When did these two disciplines separate? Was it Nietzsche, Marx and Freud, the triumvirate of thought? Was it Nietzsche, Marx and Freud, or Hobbes’s “state of nature”? I would put it around the first century of the Council of Nicaea. The Fathers of that time said, “Not like philosophers, but like fishermen”, that to reach the depths of humanity was not a human word, like philosophy, which never gets old. But they were then, Benedict XVI argued, stuck in Aristotle’s “homoousis”. He still wished to believe ” more like the fisherman than the philosopher”.

Thomas Aquinas, in his Scholastic philosophy, held that “philosophy is the offspring of theology”. Ockham, in his “Ockham’s Razor”, argued that philosophy should be separated from theology. Nevertheless, Descartes’s proof of the existence of God has been challenged by many philosophers, but even in this century it has not been defeated.

Spinoza advocated “pantheism”, which was considered heretical. Leibniz’s concept of the monad as the atomic equivalent of spiritual existence. Neither the smallest nor the largest of worlds can be grandfathered to us. However, the world was not created by chance, and these monads were “scheduled harmony” in that the world was designed to be the best it could be. Barkley, who was a clergyman, believed that while no one was looking, God was. He called it existence. Kant, a devout Protestant, wrote to Swedenborg, then a mystic, protesting against him, and held that true faith was reason. Hegel, also an empirical believer, objected to Kant’s objectivity as unrecognizable. This is the cessation (Aufheben) of the dialectic. Since the Industrial Revolution, when industrialization led people to work harder, to worry more about the environment, and to question their own well-being, Kant’s dialectic has been the basis for the development of a new way of thinking. began to question their happiness. Faith in Christianity at the time was also waning.

The need for man to have a core conscience and beliefs was symbolized by Nietzsche with the words “God is dead”. Nietzsche identified two kinds of nihilism: active nihilism, in which people create new values for themselves, and passive nihilism, in which people lose hope in life because of the existence of existing values.

Husserl’s phenomenology led to the study of human consciousness, orientation and human perception and existence. With Heidegger, who was a Catholic theologian, he attempted to de-Catholicism the human being as a born-again “Dasein”.

Nevertheless, the “face” of Levinas also led to a return to the Old Testament. Levinas succeeded in refuting Husserl’s ‘interpersonal inertia’. This is Levinas’s ‘l’Autre’.This is Levinas’s ‘theory of the Other’.  As you can see in French, it is “”beings who cannot enter my world”.  “. He held that recognizing the ‘face’ of the other could resolve this chasm.

Levinas miraculously survived the concentration camps, but the world existed. This formless, subject-less thing that exists even when it is lost is what he calls ‘Ilya’. To him, the person who existed may have looked like the beast of the Apocalypse, which has no name, but only a number.

Quoting from the Old Testament, “Thou shalt not kill”, he said that the way out of the Iliad is to get to know “the face of the other”, to engage with the other from indifference. This philosophy was regarded by John Paul II as a philosopher who should not be forgotten.

It has been said that theology is on the wane. Nevertheless, Balthasar, with his beautiful writing and logic, speaks to us academically and to our emotions about the mystery of the love of the Trinity. Theology, too, has never existed without the philosopher.(Neoplatonism)

Philosophy has probably progressed to the denial of God since the end of Paul Ricoeur coexistence of religion and philosophy. Theology has moved on from a skeleton world to the existence of God as the answer.

In the history of theology there has never been a time when the masses were pure and innocent. It does not seem so far removed from other non-religious histories. It does not seem to be so far removed from other non-religious histories. It is not without its perplexities to take them both, but it is Aufheben. While waiting for the results of science, man follows his perceptions when even science remains imperfect.

Philosophy and theology are probably on the same track.

They are both on the verge of death, and they are both working themselves to death.

As we cut ourselves down, the soul is revealed.

It is our wisdom, our weakness, our strength, our gift.

It is a gift.

 The world outside is beautiful. But to be able to be aware of it, we need to love the depths of our inner world. Even if you lose your memory due to illness, your mind and the world are still connected. Even if I forget myself because of illness, God and I are connected. We love many things while we are alive. In time, the outer world may be whittled away by the decline of the body. Still, it is the soul that sees the light. The soul’s sight of the external world is the core of the world.


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